## Friday, 24 March 2017

### converting hexadecimal, octal, binary to decimal and vice versa using a C program(c programming examples)(c program examples)

This program is a combination of function which convert a decimal to hexadecimal, octal and binary and from hexadecimal, octal and binary to decimal.

What can you find with these program below:
1.Binary              <==>decimal
2.Octal               <==>decimal

But you have to select your option to process the program.

If you want to see this code with a perfect indentation, copy the code into "sublime text editor" and make sure that the type of code is set to 'c' at the bottom right of the window. After pasting the code press the command "ctrl+shift+P", you get a search box. Type "indentation" you get an option like this below the search box "Indentation: Reindent lines". Clink on that to get the code with indentation.

The program is as follows:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <string.h>

int power(int a,int b)
{
int product=1;
for(;b>0;b--)
product=product*a;
return product;
}

int OtoI(char *a)
{
int len,sum=0,i=0;
len=strlen(a);
for(;len>0;len--)
{
sum=sum+(power(8,i)*(a[len-1]-48));
i++;
}
return sum;
}

int hex(char a)
{
int i;
char hexa[]="0123456789ABCDEFabcdef";
for(i=0;hexa[i]!='\0';i++)
if(a==hexa[i])
{
if(i<=15)
return i;
else
return i-6;
}
}

int BtoI(char *a)
{
int len,sum=0,i=0;
len=strlen(a);
for(;len>0;len--)
{
sum=sum+(power(2,i)*(a[len-1]-48));
i++;
}
return sum;
}

int HtoI(char *a)
{
int len,sum=0,i=0,j;
len=strlen(a);
for(;len>=0;len--)
{
j=hex(a[len-1]);
sum=sum+(power(16,i)*j);
i++;
}
return sum;
}

int inte(char *a)
{
int len,sum=0,i=0;
len=strlen(a);
for(;len>0;len--)
{

sum=sum+(power(10,i)*(a[len-1]-48));
i++;
}
return sum;
}

int ItoB(int a)
{
int i,arr[100];
for(i=0;a!=1 && a!=0;i++)
{
arr[i]=(a%2);
a=(a/2);
}
arr[i]=a;
arr[i+1]='\0';
for(;i>=0;i--)
printf("%d",arr[i] );
return 1;
}

int ItoO(int a)
{
int i,arr[100];
for(i=0;a>=8;i++)
{
arr[i]=(a%8);
a=(a/8);
}
arr[i]=a;
arr[i+1]='\0';
for(;i>=0;i--)
printf("%d",arr[i] );
return 1;
}

{
int i;
char hexa[]="0123456789ABCDEFabcdef";
for(i=0;hexa[i]!='\0';i++)
if(a==hexa[i])
return hexa[i];
}

int ItoH(int a)
{
int i,arr[100];
char c;
for(i=0;a>=16;i++)
{
arr[i]=a%16;
a=a/16;
}
arr[i]=a;
arr[i+1]='\0';
for(;i>=0;i--)
{
if(arr[i]<=9)
else
printf("%c",c);
}
return 1;
}

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int i,res,integ;
char array[100];
printf("enter your input to be converted\n");
gets(array);
scanf("%d",&i);
printf("\n");
if(i==1)
{
printf("1.integer==>binary\n2.binary==>integer\n");
scanf("%d",&i);
printf("\n");
if(i==1)
{
integ=inte(array);
res=ItoB(integ);
printf("\n");
}
else if(i==2)
{
res=BtoI(array);
printf("the integer form of the given binary is %d\n",res );
}

}
else if(i==2)
{
printf("1.integer==>octal\n2.octal==>integer\n");
scanf("%d",&i);
printf("\n");
if(i==1)
{
integ=inte(array);
res=ItoO(integ);
printf("\n");
}
else if(i==2)
{
res=OtoI(array);
printf("the integer form of the given octal is %d\n",res );
}
}
else if(i==3)
{
scanf("%d",&i);
printf("\n");
if(i==1)
{
integ=inte(array);
res=ItoH(integ);
printf("\n");
}
else if(i==2)
{
res=HtoI(array);
printf("the integer form of the given hexadecimal is %d\n",res );
}
}
printf("----------------------------------------------\n");
return 0;
}

The output is as follows:

C is a general-purpose programming language. It has been closely associated with the UNIX system where is was developed, since both the system and most of the programs that run on it are written in C. The language, however, is not tied to any one operating system or machine; and although it has been called a “system programming language” because it is useful for writing compilers and operating systems, it has been used equally well to write major programs in many different domains.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
Many of the important ideas of C stem from the language BCPL, developed by Martin Richards. The influence of BCPL on C proceeded indirectly through the language B, which was written by Ken Thompson in 1970 for the first UNIX system on the DEC PDP-7.(c programming examples)
BCPL and B are “typeless” languages. By contrast, C provides a variety of data types. The fundamental types are characters, and integers and floating point numbers of several sizes. In addition, there is a hierarchy of derived data types created with pointers, arrays, structures, and unions. Expressions are formed from operators and operands; any expression, including an assignment or a function call, can be a statement. Pointers provide for machine-independent address arithmetic.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C provides the fundamental control-flow constructions required for well-structured programs: statement grouping, decision making (if-else), selecting one of a set of possible cases (switch), looping with the termination test at the top (while, for) or at the bottom (do), and early loop exit (break).(c programming examples)(c program examples)
Functions may return values of basic types, structures, unions, or pointers. Any function may be called recursively. Local variables are typically “automatic,” or created anew with each invocation. Function definitions may not be nested but variables may be declared in a block-structured fashion. The functions of a C program may exist I separate source files that are compiled separately. Variables may be internal to a function, external but know only within a single source file, or visible to the entire program.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
A preprocessing step performs macro substitution on program text, inclusion of other source files, conditional compilation.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C  is a relatively “low level” language. This characterization is not pejorative; it simply means that C deals with the same sort of object that most computers do, namely characters, numbers, and addresses. These may be combined and moved about with the arithmetic and logical operators implemented by real machines.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C provides no operations to deal directly with composite objects such as character strings, sets, lists, or arrays. There are no operations that manipulate an entire array or string, although structures may be copied as a unit. The language does not define any storage allocation facility other than static definition and the stack discipline provided by the local variables of functions; there is n heap or garbage collection. Finally, C itself provides no input/output facilities; there are no READ or WRITE statements, and no built-in file access methods. All of these higher-level mechanisms must be provided by explicitly called functions. Most C implementations have included a reasonably standard collection of such functions.(c programming examples)(c program examples)

In the above program you can find different kind of functions which are used for conversions. You can copy the functions and can use it anywhere.

If you like my code please follow me on google to get notify when my post publish on net.

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## Wednesday, 15 March 2017

### Adding of two numbers without using the '+' in a C program(c programming examples)(c program examples)

Adding of two numbers without using operator '+' in a C program.

To write this program we use the operator '~' which converts a number to its complement.

If you want to see this code with a perfect indentation, copy the code into "sublime text editor" and make sure that the type of code is set to 'c' at the bottom right of the window. After pasting the code press the command "ctrl+shift+P", you get a search box. Type "indentation" you get an option like this below the search box "Indentation: Reindent lines". Clink on that to get the code with indentation.

The below program helps in understanding how this operator works:

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int i;
for(i=0;i<=100;i++)
printf("%d   and it's complement is   %d\n",i,~i );
return 0;
}

The output is as follows:

The below program explains how two number can be added without '+':

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int i,j,sum;
printf("enter any two integers:\n");
scanf("%d %d",&i,&j);
sum=i-~j-1;
printf("sum of two numbers is %d\n",sum );
return 0;
}

The output is as follows:

C is a general-purpose programming language. It has been closely associated with the UNIX system where is was developed, since both the system and most of the programs that run on it are written in C. The language, however, is not tied to any one operating system or machine; and although it has been called a “system programming language” because it is useful for writing compilers and operating systems, it has been used equally well to write major programs in many different domains.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
Many of the important ideas of C stem from the language BCPL, developed by Martin Richards. The influence of BCPL on C proceeded indirectly through the language B, which was written by Ken Thompson in 1970 for the first UNIX system on the DEC PDP-7.(c programming examples)
BCPL and B are “typeless” languages. By contrast, C provides a variety of data types. The fundamental types are characters, and integers and floating point numbers of several sizes. In addition, there is a hierarchy of derived data types created with pointers, arrays, structures, and unions. Expressions are formed from operators and operands; any expression, including an assignment or a function call, can be a statement. Pointers provide for machine-independent address arithmetic.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C provides the fundamental control-flow constructions required for well-structured programs: statement grouping, decision making (if-else), selecting one of a set of possible cases (switch), looping with the termination test at the top (while, for) or at the bottom (do), and early loop exit (break).(c programming examples)(c program examples)
Functions may return values of basic types, structures, unions, or pointers. Any function may be called recursively. Local variables are typically “automatic,” or created anew with each invocation. Function definitions may not be nested but variables may be declared in a block-structured fashion. The functions of a C program may exist I separate source files that are compiled separately. Variables may be internal to a function, external but know only within a single source file, or visible to the entire program.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
A preprocessing step performs macro substitution on program text, inclusion of other source files, conditional compilation.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C  is a relatively “low level” language. This characterization is not pejorative; it simply means that C deals with the same sort of object that most computers do, namely characters, numbers, and addresses. These may be combined and moved about with the arithmetic and logical operators implemented by real machines.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C provides no operations to deal directly with composite objects such as character strings, sets, lists, or arrays. There are no operations that manipulate an entire array or string, although structures may be copied as a unit. The language does not define any storage allocation facility other than static definition and the stack discipline provided by the local variables of functions; there is n heap or garbage collection. Finally, C itself provides no input/output facilities; there are no READ or WRITE statements, and no built-in file access methods. All of these higher-level mechanisms must be provided by explicitly called functions. Most C implementations have included a reasonably standard collection of such functions.(c programming examples)(c program examples)

### Adding of two complex numbers using a c program(c programming examples)(c program examples)

Adding of two complex numbers using a C program.

In this C program, we are using structures.

If you want to see this code with a perfect indentation, copy the code into "sublime text editor" and make sure that the type of code is set to 'c' at the bottom right of the window. After pasting the code press the command "ctrl+shift+P", you get a search box. Type "indentation" you get an option like this below the search box "Indentation: Reindent lines". Clink on that to get the code with indentation.

The program is as follows:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

struct complex
{
int real;
int img;
};

int main()
{
struct complex a,b,c;
printf("enter a and b where a+ib is the first complex number.\n");
printf("\na=");
scanf("%d",&a.real);
printf("\nb=");
scanf("%d",&a.img);
printf("enter c and d where c+id is the second complex number.\n");
printf("\nc=");
scanf("%d",&b.real);
printf("\nd=");
scanf("%d",&b.img);
c.real=a.real+b.real;
c.img=a.img+b.img;
if(c.img>=0)
printf("sum of two complex numbers = %d+%di\n",c.real,c.img );
else
printf("sum of two complex numbers= %d%di\n",c.real,c.img );
getch();
return 0;
}

The output is as follows:

C is a general-purpose programming language. It has been closely associated with the UNIX system where is was developed, since both the system and most of the programs that run on it are written in C. The language, however, is not tied to any one operating system or machine; and although it has been called a “system programming language” because it is useful for writing compilers and operating systems, it has been used equally well to write major programs in many different domains.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
Many of the important ideas of C stem from the language BCPL, developed by Martin Richards. The influence of BCPL on C proceeded indirectly through the language B, which was written by Ken Thompson in 1970 for the first UNIX system on the DEC PDP-7.(c programming examples)
BCPL and B are “typeless” languages. By contrast, C provides a variety of data types. The fundamental types are characters, and integers and floating point numbers of several sizes. In addition, there is a hierarchy of derived data types created with pointers, arrays, structures, and unions. Expressions are formed from operators and operands; any expression, including an assignment or a function call, can be a statement. Pointers provide for machine-independent address arithmetic.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C provides the fundamental control-flow constructions required for well-structured programs: statement grouping, decision making (if-else), selecting one of a set of possible cases (switch), looping with the termination test at the top (while, for) or at the bottom (do), and early loop exit (break).(c programming examples)(c program examples)
Functions may return values of basic types, structures, unions, or pointers. Any function may be called recursively. Local variables are typically “automatic,” or created anew with each invocation. Function definitions may not be nested but variables may be declared in a block-structured fashion. The functions of a C program may exist I separate source files that are compiled separately. Variables may be internal to a function, external but know only within a single source file, or visible to the entire program.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
A preprocessing step performs macro substitution on program text, inclusion of other source files, conditional compilation.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C  is a relatively “low level” language. This characterization is not pejorative; it simply means that C deals with the same sort of object that most computers do, namely characters, numbers, and addresses. These may be combined and moved about with the arithmetic and logical operators implemented by real machines.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C provides no operations to deal directly with composite objects such as character strings, sets, lists, or arrays. There are no operations that manipulate an entire array or string, although structures may be copied as a unit. The language does not define any storage allocation facility other than static definition and the stack discipline provided by the local variables of functions; there is n heap or garbage collection. Finally, C itself provides no input/output facilities; there are no READ or WRITE statements, and no built-in file access methods. All of these higher-level mechanisms must be provided by explicitly called functions. Most C implementations have included a reasonably standard collection of such functions.(c programming examples)(c program examples)

## Monday, 6 March 2017

### Checking rudimentary syntax errors.(c programming examples)(c program examples)

Write a program to check a C program for rudimentary syntax errors like unmatched parentheses, brackets, and braces. Don’t forget about quotes, both single and double, escape sequences and comments. (This program is hard if you do it in full generality.)

If you want to see this code with a perfect indentation, copy the code into "sublime text editor" and make sure that the type of code is set to 'c' at the bottom right of the window. After pasting the code press the command "ctrl+shift+P", you get a search box. Type "indentation" you get an option like this below the search box "Indentation: Reindent lines". Clink on that to get the code with indentation.

The program is as follows:

#include <stdio.h>
main()
{
char c;
int brack=0,brace=0,paren=0,squote=0,dquote=0,line=0;
while((c=getchar())!=EOF)
{
if(c=='\n')
line++;
else if(c=='{')
brace++;
else if(c=='}')
brace--;
else if(c=='(')
brack++;
else if(c==')')
brack--;
else if(c=='[')
paren++;
else if(c==']')
paren--;
else if(c=='\'')
squote++;
else if(c=='\"')
dquote++;
}
if(brace==0)
;
else
printf("%d unmatching braces found\n",brace );
if(brack==0)
;
else
printf("%d unmatching brackets found\n",brack );
if(paren==0)
;
else
printf("%d unmatching parenthesis found\n",paren );
if(squote%2==0)
;
else
printf("%d unmatching single quotes found\n",(squote%2) );
if(dquote%2==0)
;
else
printf("%d unmatching doublw quotes found\n",(dquote%2) );
return 0;
}

The output is as follows:

C is a general-purpose programming language. It has been closely associated with the UNIX system where is was developed, since both the system and most of the programs that run on it are written in C. The language, however, is not tied to any one operating system or machine; and although it has been called a “system programming language” because it is useful for writing compilers and operating systems, it has been used equally well to write major programs in many different domains.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
Many of the important ideas of C stem from the language BCPL, developed by Martin Richards. The influence of BCPL on C proceeded indirectly through the language B, which was written by Ken Thompson in 1970 for the first UNIX system on the DEC PDP-7.(c programming examples)
BCPL and B are “typeless” languages. By contrast, C provides a variety of data types. The fundamental types are characters, and integers and floating point numbers of several sizes. In addition, there is a hierarchy of derived data types created with pointers, arrays, structures, and unions. Expressions are formed from operators and operands; any expression, including an assignment or a function call, can be a statement. Pointers provide for machine-independent address arithmetic.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C provides the fundamental control-flow constructions required for well-structured programs: statement grouping, decision making (if-else), selecting one of a set of possible cases (switch), looping with the termination test at the top (while, for) or at the bottom (do), and early loop exit (break).(c programming examples)(c program examples)
Functions may return values of basic types, structures, unions, or pointers. Any function may be called recursively. Local variables are typically “automatic,” or created anew with each invocation. Function definitions may not be nested but variables may be declared in a block-structured fashion. The functions of a C program may exist I separate source files that are compiled separately. Variables may be internal to a function, external but know only within a single source file, or visible to the entire program.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
A preprocessing step performs macro substitution on program text, inclusion of other source files, conditional compilation.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C  is a relatively “low level” language. This characterization is not pejorative; it simply means that C deals with the same sort of object that most computers do, namely characters, numbers, and addresses. These may be combined and moved about with the arithmetic and logical operators implemented by real machines.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C provides no operations to deal directly with composite objects such as character strings, sets, lists, or arrays. There are no operations that manipulate an entire array or string, although structures may be copied as a unit. The language does not define any storage allocation facility other than static definition and the stack discipline provided by the local variables of functions; there is n heap or garbage collection. Finally, C itself provides no input/output facilities; there are no READ or WRITE statements, and no built-in file access methods. All of these higher-level mechanisms must be provided by explicitly called functions. Most C implementations have included a reasonably standard collection of such functions.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
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