Tuesday, 17 January 2017

Toggling case of letters in a string in C programming(c programming examples)(c program examples)

Toggling case of letters in a string in C programming

This is an example C program on handling string data. Out task is to toggle the case of each alphabetic character in the string. 

The meaning of Toggling: It means changing the case of the character. If the character is in lower case after toggling it is changed to upper case letter. If the character is in the upper case after toggling it is changed to lower case letter.


If you want to see this code with a perfect indentation, copy the code into "sublime text editor" and make sure that the type of code is set to 'c' at the bottom right of the window. After pasting the code press the command "ctrl+shift+P", you get a search box. Type "indentation" you get an option like this below the search box "Indentation: Reindent lines". Clink on that to get the code with indentation. 


The program is as follows:

#include <stdio.h>
main()
{
char a[1000];
int i;
printf("enter any string\n");
gets(a);
for(i=0;a[i]!='\0';i++)
{
if(a[i]>=65 && a[i]<=90)
a[i]=a[i]+32;
else if(a[i]>=97 && a[i]<=122)
a[i]=a[i]-32;
}
printf("the toggling case of the given string is as follows:\n");
for(i=0;a[i]!='\0';i++)
printf("%c",a[i] );
return 0;
}


The output is as follows:








#include <stdio.h>


The '#include' is a preprocessor directive which includes the source files inside the code. The 'stdio.h' is a standard input and output header file with several functions written in it. The functions like 'printf()''gets()' and 'scanf()' are work when we include 'stdio.h' header file. 



char a[1000];

Here we declare only one array 'a[]' to store the string entered by the user. And the data type used is 'char' which carries the character type data.


int i=0,space=0;

We declared two variables 'i' and 'space'. We assigned both the variables with '0' to remove the garbage values within the variables. The variable 'i' is used to browse all the compartments of the array. And the variable 'space' is used to represent the number of words in the string.



printf("enter any string\n");

gets(a);



The two predefined functions 'printf()' and 'gets()' are included in the 'stdio.h' header file. These lines are executed with the help of 'stdio.h' header file. The function 'printf()' prints the message "enter any string". The function 'gets()' assigns the string into the array 'a[]'.


for(i=0;a[i]!='\0';i++)

{

if(a[i]>=65 && a[i]<=90)

a[i]=a[i]+32;

else if(a[i]>=97 && a[i]<=122)

a[i]=a[i]-32;

}

This loop is used to toggle the case of the letter. The ASCII values in between 65 and 90 represent the upper case letters and the ASCII values in between 97 and 122 represent the lower case letters. Each upper case value of a letter is different with a value of 32 with its corresponding lower case and vice verse. So, in the condition, we check whether it is in lower case or upper case. If the character is in upper case, it is added with a value 32 to change its case. If the character is in lower case, it is decreased by a value of 32 to change its case.


printf("the toggling case of the given string is as follows:\n");

It is just a message or saying about what is about to print below. The function 'printf()' is used to print the message "the toggling case of the given string is as follow:"

for(i=0;a[i]!='\0';i++)
printf("%c",a[i] );

This loop is used to print the string. We can also use the following line to print the string instead of two lines the one line below prints the string.

"printf("%s",a)"

Hence the problem is solved and another program gets into the bucket.



C is a general-purpose programming language. It has been closely associated with the UNIX system where is was developed, since both the system and most of the programs that run on it are written in C. The language, however, is not tied to any one operating system or machine; and although it has been called a “system programming language” because it is useful for writing compilers and operating systems, it has been used equally well to write major programs in many different domains.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
Many of the important ideas of C stem from the language BCPL, developed by Martin Richards. The influence of BCPL on C proceeded indirectly through the language B, which was written by Ken Thompson in 1970 for the first UNIX system on the DEC PDP-7.(c programming examples)
BCPL and B are “typeless” languages. By contrast, C provides a variety of data types. The fundamental types are characters, and integers and floating point numbers of several sizes. In addition, there is a hierarchy of derived data types created with pointers, arrays, structures, and unions. Expressions are formed from operators and operands; any expression, including an assignment or a function call, can be a statement. Pointers provide for machine-independent address arithmetic.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C provides the fundamental control-flow constructions required for well-structured programs: statement grouping, decision making (if-else), selecting one of a set of possible cases (switch), looping with the termination test at the top (while, for) or at the bottom (do), and early loop exit (break).(c programming examples)(c program examples)
Functions may return values of basic types, structures, unions, or pointers. Any function may be called recursively. Local variables are typically “automatic,” or created anew with each invocation. Function definitions may not be nested but variables may be declared in a block-structured fashion. The functions of a C program may exist I separate source files that are compiled separately. Variables may be internal to a function, external but know only within a single source file, or visible to the entire program.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
A preprocessing step performs macro substitution on program text, inclusion of other source files, conditional compilation.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C  is a relatively “low level” language. This characterization is not pejorative; it simply means that C deals with the same sort of object that most computers do, namely characters, numbers, and addresses. These may be combined and moved about with the arithmetic and logical operators implemented by real machines.(c programming examples)(c program examples)
C provides no operations to deal directly with composite objects such as character strings, sets, lists, or arrays. There are no operations that manipulate an entire array or string, although structures may be copied as a unit. The language does not define any storage allocation facility other than static definition and the stack discipline provided by the local variables of functions; there is n heap or garbage collection. Finally, C itself provides no input/output facilities; there are no READ or WRITE statements, and no built-in file access methods. All of these higher-level mechanisms must be provided by explicitly called functions. Most C implementations have included a reasonably standard collection of such functions.(c programming examples)(c program examples)

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